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PARKS AND TRIBES

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MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR

  1. Geology;

  2. Hydrology;

  3. Conservation status;

  4. What to do;

  5. Vegetation;

  6. Mammals;

  7. Birds;

  8. Other critters;

  9. How to get there on your own;

  10. Best tour.

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Map in Esmaraldas.MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Map Cayapas Mataje Ecological Reserve

Geology

Along the Pacific coasts of the Americas, mangrove forests are rather rare, and considered as their total surface, they are extremely rare coastal forests that are among the most severely threatened worldwide.

 

Unfortunately, many mangrove forests in Ecuador have been converted into shrimp farms, but a few are well protected, the best area being Cayapas Mataje Ecological Reserve.

 

The location of the Manglares Cayapas Mataje Ecological Reserve, Ecuador is northwestern Ecuador, in the province of Esmeraldas between La Tola, Borb? and the Mataje River and the border with Colombia. There are the most extensive mangroves of Esmeraldas, standing out those of Majagual, considered among the highest in the world (30 m or more).

 

One finds a few small mangroves along the Mexican and Guatemalan Pacific but the first well developed mangroves are found from El Salvador to Costa Rica. From Panama to Northern Colombia, mangroves are present but low and narrow. Only from Nuqui (West of Medellin) to northern Ecuador, again mangroves have developed to their full potentials with extensive networks of creeks and tidal estuaries. However, In Colombia, the mangrove forests along the Pacific Ocean are found on the Choc?coast, which previously was part of the former FARC bulwark and now drugs cartel territory! Unfortunately, the same conditions increasingly apply to the entire Esmeraldas province and you can't visit these mangroves any longer. Alternatively you can safely visit the Churute Mangroves.

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Hydrology

Flooded at high tide, the root systems of mangrove trees make mangrove estuaries among the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. Ecologically, mangroves are considered nurseries of the oceans!

The main hydrographic basins in the area are made up of the Cayapas and Mataje rivers. The first runs 344 km to the southwest and drains an area of ​​700,000 ha. Its most important tributaries are Santiago, Onzole and San Miguel. The Mataje hydrographic basin is binational, as it flows through southern Colombia and northern Ecuador, draining an area of ​​41,800 ha. The hydrographic system is also made up of estuaries and channels that constitute natural subsystems of ecological and economic importance, since they allow the subsistence of local populations located in the buffer zone.

Climate: The temperature fluctuates between 23-25 ​​?C with a rainfall of 3,000 mm/year.

 

Laden with fine sediments, mangroves in Ecuador are extremely nutrient rich waters, which is reflected in the presence of great densities of fishes, giving opportunities to local fishing communities. It is important however to state that mangroves are characterized by high numbers animals per species, but relatively few species; so the biodiversity is low.

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Conservation status

The largest and best preserved estuarine ecosystem is located in the Cayapas-Mataje Ecological Reserve. They cover an area of ​​49,350 ha and are made up of shallow marine waters, estuaries, estuaries, floodable grasslands, forested and intertidal wetlands and wooded peat bogs. This area has been declared a UNESCO Ramsar site in June 2003.

Created October 26, 1995 Executive Decree DE-052 official registration November 15, 1995 R.O. N? 822 surface area 49,350 ha altitude range 0 ? 35 masl.

Settlement by Afro-Ecuadorians began in the mid-17th century. Oral tradition tells that a ship loaded with slaves ran aground on the coast of the current province of Esmeraldas, the black slaves who fled settled in the sector. Later, according to the historian Serrano Quiroz, in 1600 there was another shipwreck with similar characteristics on these same coasts. It is also known that these territories housed black slaves who worked in the Sierra and managed to flee to Esmeraldas in search of their freedom. During their early years, these peoples maintained their own way of life. It was during the 18th century, with the irruption of the Church and later of the Republic, that these towns became part of the national sphere. Currently, 31 Afro-Ecuadorian communities live within the Reserve, 13 are in custody between the communities and 12 are in the buffer zone. The family economy is based on fishing and collecting shells, clams, oysters, crabs, prawns, shrimp and fish. Aw? and Chachis indigenous communities inhabit the humid tropical forests on higher grounds adjacent to the Reserve.

 

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Fisherman throwing net in Mangrove estuary, Ecuador

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Fisheries in the Mangrove forest estuaryMANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Father and son fishingMANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Fishing in the Mangrove estuary

Laden with fine sediments, mangroves Cayapas Mataje in Ecuador are extremely nutrient rich waters, which is reflected in the presence of great densities of fishes, giving opportunities to local fishing communities.

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Thinks to do in the Mangroves Cayapas Mataje, Ecuador

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Mangrove trips and tours on the coast of EcuadorMANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Mangrove tour stopping at a restaurant on stilts in Ecuador

 

Tourism still is not well developed in the Mangroves Cayapas Mataje, Ecuador and conditions are primitive while arrangements are not always as punctual as one would wish. A bit of travel flexibility helps making a visit successful though.

 

Tours of the mangrove: To visit it, boats are rented from San Lorenzo, Borb?, La Tola and Valdez in Limones. The mangrove is found in the coastal strip, on some islands and marshy plains divided by numerous channels that originate the Cayapas, Mataje, San Miguel and Santiago rivers. The largest and most visited estuarine channels in the Reserve are present in El Pail?, Boca de Mataje and in front of La Boca na de Bol?ar.

Playones and river rocks: They are located on the banks of the Tululb? Palab? Bogot? Mataje and Cachabi rivers. Here the visitor can find full fun and lodging in rustic cabins, with materials from the area.

Estero el viento: It is the most suitable area to observe mangroves due to its good state of conservation. Following the estuaries, it is possible to continue the route to the town of Palma Real or Anc? de Sardinas, located on the northern limit of the Reserve, attractive for its unique community organization.

San Pedro and Caucal Beaches: Located in San Lorenzo, on the northern limit of the Reserve there are around 12 km of beach, which is accessed by river, sailing through the estuaries and the San Antonio River. They are characterized by being the refuge of marine birds, such as the pelican, the blue-footed booby and the frigatebird.

The visitor can enjoy one of the most colorful and appreciated cultural manifestations by the local communities: the Esmeralde? Marimba, which constitutes a magnificent show of rhythm, music, seduction and color. In June, an international festival is held in this city with representatives from several neighboring countries.

 

La Tolita (Pampa de Oro): Most of the remains belonging to the La Tolita culture, which inhabited these areas between 500 BC − 500 AD, have been found here. Thanks to these findings, it has been possible to determine his deep knowledge in working with ceramics and metals such as gold and platinum. On the site you can see several "tolas" or artificial mounds that served, in some cases, to secure the houses against the ravages of the sea and, in others, to bury their dead, generally together with utensils and other artifacts. The cultural productions that have been found of this human group are of extreme beauty and complexity. One example is the sun-shaped funerary mask that is currently used as an icon in the National Museum in Quito. Other places of nearby archaeological interest are La Tolita de los Ruanos and La Tolita de los Castillos; all of them can be reached by river starting from San Lorenzo.

Cascada de la Princesa Tari: It is located in the limits of the Reserve and can be accessed by sea from San Lorenzo. In winter it presents an impressive appearance due to its immense flow, but in summer it is completely dry. The name is due to the fact that, according to the original oral tradition, a beautiful indigenous princess used to bathe in the waters of the waterfall as part of a purification ritual.

The jump of the tiger or the waterfall: It is located in San Antonio, outside the Reserve, but very close to its limits. Navigating along the access route to the area, it is very interesting to observe the transition between the tropical rain forest and the mangrove.

Isla de los P?aros: It is located at the mouth of the Bol?ar channel. This islet is formed by sand sediments dragged by sea currents. Throughout the year, thousands of birds such as pelicans, herons, seagulls, blue-footed boobies, ducks, frigatebirds, kingfishers, and others, continually visit the island to rest and mate.

The 7 waterfalls of the Chuchuv?River: Site located at Km 111 of the Ibarra-San Lorenzo road, northwest of Esmeraldas. From the Chuchuv? River, seven waterfalls with 6 - 80 m height originate.

Yalare Wetland Protective Forest: It is located on the Pacific Marginal road and ends in front of the western bank of the Santiago River, with an area of ​​3,200 ha. Here you can find the largest bats in the American continent at night, which are approximately 1.10 m long with outstretched wings.

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Vegetation

Along the Pacific coasts of the Americas, mangrove forests are rather rare, and considered as their total surface, they are extremely rare coastal forests. One finds a few small mangroves along the Mexican and Guatemalan Pacific but the first well developed mangroves are found from El Salvador to Costa Rica. From Panama mangroves are present but the  best are in Cayapas Mataje, Ecuador, where mangroves are tall with deep networks of creeks and tidal estuaries. However, In Colombia, the mangrove forests along the Pacific Ocean are found on the Choc?coast, which still is part of the last FARC bulwarks! So, in reality, of all mangroves of the South American Pacific, only the mangroves in Ecuador are open to the public.

 

Unfortunately, many mangrove forests in Ecuador have been converted into shrimp farms, but a few are well protected, the best area being Cayapas Mataje Ecological Reserve.

 

Vegetation formations

Plant formations Lowland evergreen forest, lowland floodable evergreen forest, mangrove swamp, mangillo forest, lowland dry scrub, grassland, lake and anthropic formations.

The Reserve is located in the natural formations of the coast, North subregion, Lowlands Sector and presents, according to Sierra (1999), the following types of mangroves in Ecuador:

Evergreen lowland forest: It is characterized by being a stratified forest, in which 187 species have been cataloged. The most representative families are: Rubiaceae, Mora ceae, Mimosaceae and Meliaceae; while at the species level the most characteristic are palo blanco (Aegiphila alba), guabo (Inga tibaudiana) and dedo (Quararibea osterolepis). An uncommon species is Zamia gentryi (Cycadaceae); (Rosemary 1998). In the upper stratum of the canopy, the trees can reach up to 25 m in height and the following tree species dominate: cuangare (Otoba gordoniifolia), rubber (Castilla elastica), script (Pseudolmedia rigida), cane fistula (Cassia grandis), chanul (Humiriastrum procerum), machare (Symphonia globulifera), tagua (Phytelephas aecuatoralis) and palm heart belonging to the genus Euterpes (Romero1998). In the middle layer, the Bellucia pentamera (Melastomataceae), Eschweilera sp. (Lecythidaceae), Jigua (Nectandra sp. and Ocotea sp.), guaba (Inga sp.) and caimitillo (Chrysophyllum caimito) are the most characteristic. It should be added that both the trees in the canopy and those in the middle stratum are found in association with epiphytes of the families Bromeliaceae, Araceae and Orchideaceae (Romero 1998). In the lower stratum there are smaller shrubs, especially from the Piperaceae family (Piper sp. is the most common), Rubiaceae (Palicouria sp.) and Urticaceae (Urera baccifera) associated with a dense herbaceous stratum represented by the Araceae families (Anthurium sp. .) and Cyperaceae (Cyperus sp.); (Rosemary 1998). In addition, it is common to find fast-growing species in secondary forests such as guarumo (Cecropia peltata.), balsa (Ochroma piramydalis), laurel (Cordia alliodora), manbla (Erythrhina poepigiana), chillalde (Trichospermum mexicanum).

 

Evergreen flooded lowland forest: 73 species are recorded. The outstanding families are: Mimosaceae, Clusiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Melastomataceae (Romero 1998). The trees can reach more than 30 m in height such as the Osteophloeum platyspermum (My risticaceae) and live associated with species such as winul (Astrocaryum standleyanum), Adam's rib (Monstera deliciosa), matapalo (Clusia ala ta) and monkey's comb (Apeiba). rough). Infrequently, typical species of secondary forests are also found, such as: laurel (Cordia hebeclada), charcoal (Hirtella carbonaria), Cupania latifolia (Sapindaceae); chalviande (Virola sebifera) and Alchornea latifolia (Euphorbiaceae); (Rosemary 1998). mangrove: Five species are recorded in the area: mangrove turkey (Rhizophora harrisonii), red mangrove (Rizophora mangle), button mangrove (Conocarpus erectus), black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and pi?elo mangrove (Pelliciera rhizophorae). It is also common to find mangrove trees in association with species of chupaya (Guzmania nonostachya) and Epidendrum sp. (Orchidaceae); (Rosemary 1998). There are few individuals of nato (Mora megistosperma) because the species does not tolerate 100% salinity, it is generally found in estuarine sites of fresh and salt water, scattered among the mangrove swamp. There is also the ranconcha (Acrostichum danaeifolium) and beds that can reach 1.5 m in height (Romero 1998).

 

Dwarf mangrove forest: In general, this formation is modified by anthropic action and its floristic composition is similar to that of the red mangrove forest. It is found in areas of high saline concentration and with few nutrients, limiting the growth of the flora (average height 3 m); (Rosemary 1998). In the manglillo forest, the presence of 12 species is known. The representative families are Combretaceae and Rhyzophoraceae, associated with herbaceous plants of the Cyperaceae family and epiphytes such as Bromeliaceae (Rhizophora sp.) and Orchidea ceae (Epidendrum sp.). The species that is frequently observed is the button mangrove in association with red, white and ranconcha mangroves, which are found to a lesser degree. Lowland dry scrub: Presents shrubby and herbaceous vegetation, which does not exceed 3 m. The vegetation is dense and intertwined; while the canopy is irregular. 23 species have been recorded, such as: machare (Symphonia globulifera), cuangare (Otoba gordoniifolia), hawthorn (Durantha sp.), rampira or toquilla straw (Carludovica palmata), Cyperus sp. (Cyperaceae), guinea grass (Panicum maximun) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Lacustrine Herbazal: Extended in the interior parts of the islands, in lowlands, poorly drained and subject to flooding. It presents a bushy and/or herbaceous vegetation. In the beach area, the tomb gaspar (Uniola pittieri) dominates a Poaceae in association with an unidentifed Papilionaceous legume (MAE/GEF 1998). Anthropic formations4C: These formations extend both in areas of firm land and floodable. The predominant crop in the area is coconut (Cocos nucifera). However, there are other important crops such as cocoa (Theobroma cacao), cod (Theobro ma bicolor), banana (Musa sp.), citrus (Citrus sp.) in association with breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), among others ( MAE/GEF 1998).

 

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: White Mangrove forest at the coast of Ecuador

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Red Mangrove forest, Pacific Ocean, EcuadorMANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Conocarpus erecta Mangrove with air roots, Pacific Coast, Ecuador

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Stilt roots of Mangrove forest on the coast of EcuadorFlooded during high water, the root systems of Mangrove trees make mangrove estuaries some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. Ecologically, mangrove forests are considered the nurseries of the oceans!

 

 

 

Flora or of the mangroves Cayapas Mataje in Ecuador

Studies of the flora of the Mangroves of Ecuador highlight that more than 60% of the northwestern region of Esmeraldas has a unique biological wealth with a high degree of endemism (20% of the flora, that is, 1,260 species). Such is the case of tagua, palmetto and winula, species belonging to the Arecaceae family with restricted distribution in the coastal plains of Ecuador (Pedersen and Balslev 1992). Mangroves are the basis of bioaquatic production in estuaries and fulfill important ecological functions, such as: recycling of nutrients, production-export of litter and debris, maintenance of water quality, protection of coasts and estuary banks against erosion processes, retention and accumulation of sediments, among others (MAE/GEF 1998). plant formations

 

Fauna of the mangroves Cayapas Mataje in Ecuador

The fauna of the mangroves of Ecuador are generators of a significant primary production. The composition of zooplankton supplies food to innumerable species of molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This diverse freshwater and marine fauna is represented with 66 species. (Rosemary 1998).
52 mammals, 173 birds, 36 amphibians and reptiles have been recorded (MAE/GEF 1998). (Cabassous centralis), Otter (Lontra longicaudalis).

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Mammals of the mangroves Cayapas Mataje in Ecuador

The presence of mammals within the Reserve is represented by 52 species. The most recorded families are Phyllostomidae (with 19 species of bats) and Didelphidae (with five species of possums and foxes). In the beach area, the bat (Artibeus sp.), the vixen (Didelphis marsupialis) and the four-headed opossum (Philander opossum) are very common. On the other hand, in the estuarine channels, the only recorded mammal is the fishing bat (Noctilio leporinus), whose habitat includes estuaries and firm land forests, but always associated with bodies of water. There is also a new record for northwestern Ecuador of the bat Phylloderma stenops (Romero 1998). In the beach, mangrove, manglillo and guandal5C areas there are records of species such as the piang?ro cricket (Procyon cancrivorus) and the tatabra (Tayassu pecari); while in the evergreen lowland forests the most representative are: deer (Mazama americana), sloth bear (Bradypus variegatus), two-clawed sloth (Cho loepus hoffmanni), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), common or nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), meat-tailed armadillos (Cabassous centralis), otter (Lontra longicaudalis).

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Birds

Mangroves: Low biodiversity, high numbers per species

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Birding trip in Mangrove deltaMANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Brown Pelican in Mangrove waters

MANGROVES CAYAPAS MATAJE ECUADOR: Birdwatching in the Mangroves of the Coast of EcuadorBird diversity in mangroves is not as rich as in the tropical rain forests, but the species composition is totally different, and anyone who wants a representative species list of tropical birds of South America or of Ecuador, needs to spend some time in a mangrove.

 

A great advantage of the mangroves is, that many of the bird species are relatively numerous and large. A trip to a mangrove may well add some 50 species to a first time visitor in a tropical country.

 

The avifauna of the area is little known. Romero (1998) reported 173 species, but the list should be considered preliminary (Freile and Santander 2005). Important populations of sable-tailed trogon (Trogon massena), Humboldt sapphire (Hylocharis humboldtii), and tanagers (Tangara johannae, Dacnis berlepschi, and Attila torri dus) are found in the area and are globally threatened or near threatened (Freile and Santander 2005). Birds are typically associated with mangrove or lowland evergreen forest; They occupy a variety of habitats (beach areas, estuary channels, and terra firma forest). Due to the availability of food, the area concentrates a great variety of species that feed on minor fauna, associated with mangroves and wetlands, such as fish, crabs and snails. These factors have also determined the presence of 19 migratory species, mainly in the coastal zone, in the estuary channels and in the interior wetlands of the Island of Palma Real (Romero 1998).

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Other critters

Herpetofauna

Most of the Reserve is under the direct influence of sea currents, which produces high levels of salinity that limit the diversity of amphibians, but not that of reptiles. However, the herpetofauna of the protected area has 36 species, of which 14 correspond to amphibians and 22 to reptiles (Romero 1998). However, the current number is not available. In the case of amphibians, the most abundant family is Hylidae, while among the species with the highest population density is Hypsiboas pellu cens (Hylidae). Regarding reptiles, the characteristic families belong to: Colubridae and Viperidae, while the most abundant species is the solera (Leptodeira septentrionales ornata); (Rosemary 1998). In the beach areas it is possible to find reptiles such as the nupa snake (Boa constrictor imperator) and the piand (Basiliscus galeritus), species associated with the vegetation that ensures humidity and protection against the salty breeze. In the estuarine canals, the only recorded reptile has been the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), while in the portions of firm land within the mangrove islands it is possible to find the common toad (Chaunus marinus). In the guandal and in the wetlands there are species such as: alligator or tulisio (Caiman cro codilus chiapasius), and nupa. On the other hand, in the lowland evergreen forest you can find salamanders (Boli toglossa sima), devil frog (Oophaga sylvatica), Epipedobates boulengeri (Dendrobatidae); Allo bates talamancae (Aromobatidae); Trachycepha lus venulosus, Trachycephalus jordani, Smilisca phaeota, Hypsiboas pellucens, Hypsiboas rosen bergi, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, Agalychnis spurrelli (Hylidae); Eleutherodactylus achatinus, Eleutherodactylus chalceus, Craugastor anoma lus, Craugastor longirostris (Brachycephalidae), alligator (Crocodylus acutus), warty (Lachesis acrochorda), tapaculo turtle (Kinosternon leu costomum postinguinale) and yellow-legged turtle (Rhinoclemmys annulata).

 

CHURUTE MANGROVES ECOLOGICAL RESERVE, GUAYAQUIL: The green Iguana, Iguana iguana, is very common in the mangroves of the reserve. CHURUTE MANGROVES ECOLOGICAL RESERVE, GUAYAQUIL: Hardly seen in the day time, the American Crocodile, Crocodylus americanus, is present in the mangroves.

The green Iguana, Iguana iguana, is very common in the mangroves of the reserve.

Hardly seen in the day time, the American Crocodile, Crocodylus americanus, is present in the mangroves.

 

Fishes

Most of the recorded fish species are stenohaline species, that is, they tolerate few changes in the salinity. They inhabit estuaries with little influence from freshwater currents or from the marine platform (Romero 1998). 60 species of fish have been identified in the Reserve. Anchovies (Anchoa sp.), smooth (Mugil sp.) Carduma (Cetengraulis mysticetus), frogfish (Ba trachoides pacif) are the most abundant and typical in the estuarine channels; while in the beach and open sea areas the representative species are shark (Carcharinus sp.), stingrays (Urotrygon sp.), sierra (Scomberomorus maculatus) and a croaker known locally as cajeta (Larimus pacifcus); (Rosemary 1998). However a total of 102 species are known from estuarine waters of Ecuador, of which 75 are of commercial importance. The most abundant species recorded in this characterization were: white-faced mackerel (Selene peruviana), mullet (Mugil cephalus), mojarra (Eucinostomus currani) and grunt (Haemulopsis leuciscus). It should be added that the low number of freshwater fish recorded is due to the fact that most of the reserve are tidal waters, in which fresh water species are mostly absent (Romero 1998).

 

Crustacea

The most common estuarine invertebrates are: red crab, Ucides occidentalis, oysters, Cassostrea columbiensis, and mussels, Mytella guayanensis. The local population collects the crabs for sale, mainly in Guayaquil.

 

CHURUTE MANGROVES ECOLOGICAL RESERVE, GUAYAQUIL: Mangrove Root Crab, Goniopsis cruentata.CHURUTE MANGROVES ECOLOGICAL RESERVE, GUAYAQUIL: Mangrove Tree Crab, Aratus pisonii.CHURUTE MANGROVES ECOLOGICAL RESERVE, GUAYAQUIL: the very popular Red Crab, Ucides occidentalis,  harvested by local fishermen for consumption

 

Several species of crabs live in the mangrove, such as Mangrove Root Crab, Goniopsis cruentata, Mangrove Tree Crab, Aratus pisonii, and the very popular Red Crab, Ucides occidentalis, the latter harvested by local fishermen for consumption.

 

Mollusks

Romero (1998) identified 46 species of molluscs; belonging to two orders: bivalves (with chas, limpets, clams), with 29 species, and gastropods (snails), with 17. In the first order, the species with the largest number of individuals are the female shell (Anadara tuberculosa) and male shell (A. similis). In the second, the piaquil (Litto rina fascista). Zooplankton In the study conducted by Romero (1998), 22 zooplankton groups were recorded. The preponderant subclasses were Copepoda and Branchiura (in the larval stage).

 

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How to get there on your own

The Reserve can be accessed by land, from Ibarra, following the paved road that leads to San Lorenzo, the main town in the area. It can also be reached via the Esmeraldas−Borb? road, also paved (Silva 2005).

 

 

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Best tour

Dear visitor, our website gives you info about our National Parks Tours, our Galapagos programs, the Cuyabeno Loop, as well as our Cuyabeno  and Cofan Lodges in the Amazon.   For those who want to combine the Exuberant Nature of Ecuador with the Famous culture of Peru, we even have a 7 days Highlights of Peru extension! Our website gives you the best information on the internet, because we are the only tour operator run by professional biologists. Take a look:

 

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25 COOLEST THINGS TO DO IN PERU [LIMA,CUSCO, MACHU PICCHU]: Inca wall in Cusco.

PERU HIGHLIGHTS

A fabulous program for visiting the most famous cultural highlights Lima, Cusco, Machu Picchu and the Sacred Valley. At the same time it serves as the Lima hub for the Peru National Parks Tour. This module is an extension to our National Parks Tour Ecuador and/or Galapagos National Park and/or Amazon Cruises.

Precio: $ 1199

7 days

Continuation of the current theme

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PARKS & TRIBES Travel Agency

Street: Las Casas, Side street: Jose Coudrin, 2 blocks above the Occidental Highway

Cantón Quito, Prov. Pichincha, Parroquia Belisario Quevedo

Tel: (++593)(02) 2 2324 4086, Cell phone: (++593) (0) 99 283 2187 Whatsapp: (++)1 304 901 0718

Email: info@parks-and-tribes.com

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